Mar.17

Measuring Viscosity of juice

Viscosity is defined as a measure of the resistance of a fluid.

orange juice viscosity

Viscometer:
An instrument used for measuring the viscosity and flow properties of fluids. A commonly used type (Brookfield) measures the force required to rotate a disc or hollow cup immersed in the specimen fluid at a predetermined speed.

BROOKFIELD DV2T Viscometer

• The term viscosity in general refers to both dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity.

• Dynamic(absolute) viscosity is independent of the density of the fluid, but kinematic (relative) viscosity depends on the density of the liquid.

• Kinematic viscosity is equal to the dynamic viscosity divided by the density of the liquid.

 cP=\quad { 10 }^{ -2 }P=\quad { 10 }^{ -3\quad }Pa.s

 

Cellulose gum (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, carmrllose or CMC)is extracted from wood pulp and pure cotton cellulose, mainly used as a stabilizer and thickener, and widely used in milk drinks, yogurt, ice cream, baked goods, syrups.Cellulose gum has stable performance. Especially in beverages, it has such characteristics as preventing precipitation and layering of beverages, improving the taste, and enhancing resistance to high temperatures.
Cellulose Gum is not only a good emulsion stabilizer and thickener, but also has excellent stability and can improve the storage time of product.

 

CMC

Read also :Titratable Acidity Calculation For Juice - Juice Digital Refractometer Brix Measurement

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Food Analysis

Dec.18

Color Fastness to Water Procedure

Test for color fastness to water

Scope :

Determining the resistance of the color of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to immersion in water.

 

how to test color fastness to water

Apparatus :

  • Test device.
  • Oven at (37 oC).
  • Adjacent fabrics.
  • Multifibres.
  • Grey scale for assessing change in color.
  • Grey scale for assessing staining.
  • A set of (11) glass or acrylic resin plates.
  • Flat bottomed dish made of inert materials.
color fastness to water spottingcolor fastness test method

Reagents :

Grade 3 water.

Test specimen :

Attach a specimen measuring (40±2) * (100±2) mm to apiece of the multifibre adjacent fabric.

Procedure :

  • Lay out the composite specimen smoothly in flat bottomed dish and cover with (grade 3 water) at room temperature.
  • Thoroughly wet the composite specimen in the solution at an approximate ratio of (50:1).
  • Allow it to remain in the solution at room temperature for (30 min).
  • Press and move it from time to time to ensure good penetration of the liquor.
  • Pour of the solution and wipe the excess liquor off the specimen between two glass rods.
  • Place the composite specimen between the two glass or acrylic resin plates under a nominal pressure of (12.5±0.9) kpa then them in test device.
  • One test device must have only (11) plates with (10) test specimen or less.
  • Place the test device containing the composite specimen in the oven (37oC) for (4 hours).
  • Positioning it do that the test specimens are in either the horizontal position or the vertical position depending on the type of device available.
  • Open out the composite specimen and dry the specimens by hanging it in air at temperature not exceeding (60oC).
  • Assess the change in color of each specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics with reference to the original specimen by comparison with the grey scale.

 

AATCC Color Fastness to Water ISO Video

 

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Textile Testing

Dec.16

Titratable Acidity Calculation For Juice

You can calculate acid percent in juice using phenolphthalein  indicator or PH meter.

Titratable ACIDITY

Acidity Law:

(N*V)NaOH = (N*V)Acid

0.1*VNaOH = \frac { Wt }{ Eq.Wt } *1000

% Acidity= \frac { 0.1*VNaOH*Eq.Wt }{ Wt*1000 }   *100

Eq.Wt for :

Citric Acid = 64

Hydrous Citric Acid = 70

Malic Acid = 67

Tartaric Acid = 75

How to Measure Titratable Acidity ?

 

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Food Analysis

Nov.12

Which is A Physical Property of Milk

Which is A Physical Property of Milk ?

 

Temp: Must be 50°F and increase in temperature cause microbes activity.

Note:

To convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit use this equation:

C=   5/9   (F-32)

9/5  C= F + 32

 

Smell: Fresh milk has no smell, smells existing in milk are because hydrolyzed milk components or ferment lactose to lactic acid which causes acidic smell.

 

physical properties of whole milk

Fresh Test: Milk is amphoteric due to protein contain of Amino group <alkaline> and Carboxyl group <acidic>

You can detect that by litmus paper test

               Acid

Blue         ↔      Red

                Base

 

Milk Types Nutrition - Is Milk Good For You?

 

Read About Milk Taste And Milk Color

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Food Analysis

Nov.11

Physical Properties of Milk | Milk Taste

Taste: Fresh milk has sweet taste due to lactose.

Milk tase physical properties

  • Salty Taste: When chlorides are greater than 0.15%
  • Oxidized Flavor: Convert unsaturated fatty acid<ex: Oleic Acid> to its oxidation form (Aldehydes + Ketones).
  • Rancid Flavor: Due to activity of lipase enzyme and hydrolysis of fat that splitting off fatty acids that are responsible for the rancid flavor <ex: Butyric Acid>.
  • Heated Flavor: Heated over than the minimum required for pasteurization

High temperature for a longer time cause libration from the proteins – whey protein especially β-lactoglobulin -  of hydrogen sulfide (_SH) sulfhydryl group. 

  • Unclean - Bacterial - Off – Flavors: Due to the growth of large number of bacteria in milk specially E-coli and produce Indole compound from tryptophan amino acid.
  • Acid Flavor: Due to Fermentation of lactose to lactic Acid.
  • Bitter Taste: Contamination of milk by some bacterial that hydrolyzed proteins to small proteins (Peptide) that have a bitter taste.

Cow Milk Taste Like Video

 

Read about Milk color is one of the physical Properties of milk

 

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Food Analysis

Nov.09

Characteristics of Quality Milk - Milk's Color

 

Cow's milk: white yellowish due to β-carotene pigment

Buffalo, Goat, Camel, Sheep's milk:  Pure white  They can convert β-carotene to Vitamin A so we see white color of casein

Serum (Whey): Greenish yellow due to Riboflavin pigment <Vitamin B2>

 

characteristics of dairy milk

Note:

  • Carotene: Responsible for the orange color of carrots and many other fruits

Carotene are poly unsaturated hydrocarbons and existing in four forms (α, β, γ and ζ) which can be converted into vitamin A into body.

beta carotene milk color

  • Casein: the main protein in milk have a pure white color (80% of total proteins)
  • Whey Protein: all other protein in milk grouped together under the name of whey protein (called serum phase of milk)

The major whey protein in cow milk are  β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin

 

Watch This Video About Difference Between Buffalo Milk And Cow Milk

 

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Food Analysis

Nov.03

Juice Digital Refractometer Brix Measurement

Refractometer is a device to measure specific gravity for solution and hence measure total soluble solids T.S.S.

Use it when we want to know the brix of any solution juice,jam,sauce,.....

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Refractometer working  by light refraction theory , to read more about The idea of refractometer  visit this link.

Digital Refractometer Brix Measurement Video

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Food Analysis

Nov.01

Color Fastness to Perspiration

Colour Fastness to Perspiration Test

 

Principle:

Determining the resistance of the color of textiles to the action of human perspiration by treating specimens of the textile in contact with adjacent fabrics in two different solution containing histidine, drained and placed between two plates under a specified pressure in a test device. The specimens and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in color of them are assessed by comparison with the gray scales.

Apparatus And Materials:

  • Test Device:           -   consisting of a frame of stainless steel
  • A weight-piece 5Kg approximately and base 60mm × 115 mm, so that a pressure of (12.5 ± 0.9) Kpa can be applied.
  • A set of 11 glass
  • Oven: at (37 ± 2) °C.

colour fastness perspirometercolor fastness test incubator

  • Alkaline Solution:
  1. 5g l-Histidine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate (C6H9O2N3.HCL.H2O).
  2. 5g Sodium Chloride (NaCL).
  3. 5g disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate ( Na2HPO4.2H2O).

All this component per 1 Liter Distilled Water ( Grade 3 Water).

The solution is brought to PH 8 (±0.2) with 0.1 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution.

  • Acid Solution:
  1.  -   0.5g l-Histidine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate.
  2. 5g Sodium Chloride (NaCL).
  3. 2g sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (NaH2PO4.2H2O).

All this component per 1 Liter Distilled Water ( Grade 3 Water).

The solution is brought to PH 5.5 (±0.2) with 0.1 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution.

  • Test Specimens: (40 ± 2)mm × (100 ± 2)mm.
  • A multifibre Adjacent fabric: 40 ± 2)mm × (100 ± 2)mm.
  • A non-dyeable fabric: (if required).
  • Grey Scale: For assessing change in color .
  • Grey Scale: For assessing staining.
  • Flat-bottomed dish: made of inert materials.

Procedure:

1- Sew the multifibre next to the face of the specimen.

2- Put the specimens smoothly in a flat-bottomed dish and cover it with the required solution (alkaline or acid ) .

3- Thoroughly wet the specimen in solution ( Ratio 50:1 approximately), and remain it in solution for 30 min at room temperature, Press and move it from time to time to ensure good penetration of the solution.

4- Pour off the solution and wipe the excess solution off 5- the specimen.

6- Place the specimen between two glass and squeeze it well.

7- Put all 11 glass pieces even if the specimens are less than 10 to achieve the correct nominal pressure  and place it in a test device.

8- Place the test device in the oven at (37±2)°C for 4 h.

9- Open out each specimen and dry it by hanging it in air at a temperature not exceeding 60°C .

10- Assess the change in color of each specimen and the staining of the multifibre by comparison with the grey scales.

 iso 105 b02 grade scale

 

 Color Fastness to Perspiration Video

 

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Textile Testing